At times encouraged by sympathetic British officials and at other times carried by the groundswell of egalitarian sentiment being espoused then by the devotional Vaishnava movements, especially those based on Tulsidas's Ramcharitmanas, the Kurmi largely resisted these demands. [20], Again in the 1970s, the India Kurmi Kshatriya Sabha attempted to bring the Koeris under their wing, but disunity troubled this alliance. Similar problems beset a later planned caste union, the Raghav Samaj, with the Koeris. Formation of Samata Party in 1994 by Nitish Kumar, a Kurmi, formalised a new backward-upper caste alliance (Samata Party and BJP). "[4] A theory of Gustav Salomon Oppert (1893) holds that it may be derived from kṛṣmi, meaning "ploughman". For reprint rights: Times Syndication Service. Promoting what was advertised as soldierly manliness, the Kisan Sabhas agitated for the entry of non-elite farmers into the British Indian army during World War I; they formed cow protection societies; they asked their members to wear the sacred thread of the twice-born, and, in contrast to the Kurmis own traditions, to sequester their women in the manner of Rajputs and Brahmins. Les points d'amélioration suivants sont les cas les plus fréquents : Pour une aide détaillée, merci de consulter Aide:Wikification. The Hindu Kurmis of Chunar and Jaunpur, for instance, took up the Muslim custom of marrying first cousins and of burying their dead. Varna was not a behavioral concept. "Rien ne vaut la femme Kurmi; elle prend la pomme de terre et désherbe le champs avec son seigneur. [1] The landed elites' demands were couched in avowals of their ancient rights as "twice-born" landowners and of the Kurmi's alleged lowly, even servile, status, which required them to serve. Bihar election results 2020: NDA takes decisive lead, counting still on, Kashmera Shah shares breathtaking bikini picture, Bihar elections: PM Modi praises Nitish Kumar for 'sushasan', takes dig at Lalu Yadav, Interview with Table Tennis Champion Harmeet Desai, Miss Diva Universe 2019 Vartika Singh at Hyatt Regency Lucknow, Shefali Sood and Varun Verma during Press Conference at Aloft New Delhi Aerocity, 20 Best Traditional Diwali Recipes and Homemade Sweets, Kamala Harris reveals her love for indian food, Air Quality Monitors To Give Info About The Air You Breathe, Diwali sweets for diet-conscious people: 10 Options, Terms of Use and Grievance Redressal Policy. [1] Risley est surtout connu pour l'attribution aujourd'hui contestée des différences de castes aux proportions variantes de sept types de races incluant "Dravidian," "Aryo-Dravidian," and "Indo-Aryan". ", Quote: "The Hindu draws a distinction between, Indian censuses of the British Raj period, "A lasting signature on Bihar's most violent years",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 November 2020, at 08:57. Celles-ci se soldèrent par une lourde défaite mais en 1934, les trois communautés formèrent le parti politique Triveni Sangh, dont certaines sources portent le nombre d'adhérents en 1936 à un million. [21][22], Many private caste-based armies surfaced in Bihar between the 1970s and 1990s, largely influenced by landlord farmers reacting to the growing influence of left extremist groups. Avec le déclin de l'Empire Moghol au début du XVIIIe siècle, les peuplades nomades et guerrières de l'intérieur de l'Inde, se déplaçant vers les zones habitées, commencèrent à se mêler aux gens des villes et aux agriculteurs. "[18], By the mid-nineteenth century, influential revenue specialists were reporting that they could tell the caste of a landed man by simply glancing at his crops. Although British revenue officials later ascribed the high rent to the prejudice among the elite rural castes against handling the plough, the main reason was the greater productivity of the Kurmi, whose success lay in superior manuring. Economic pressures also opened marginal areas to intensive agriculture and turned the fortunes of the non-elite peasants, such as the Kurmi, who worked them. The Triveni Sangh suffered badly in the 1937 elections, although it did win in some areas. [1] Le système à quadruple qualification varna, ne fut intégré qu'une fois dans la classification officielle des castes, lors du recensement des Indes de 1901. Les Kurmis étaient réputés pour leur activité agricole. Kewat, Keot -do- 7. in the. In 1999, the alliance won 41 of the 54 parliamentary seats in undivided Bihar. Kurmi is a Hindu cultivator caste of the eastern Gangetic plain in northern India. [1], Cette idée de la caste comme un principe fondamental de la vie indienne, chez Risley, en particulier a eu une influence y compris au sein de l'administration comme en témoignent les Recensements des Indes britanniques et l'Imperial Gazetteer publié par Hunter.

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